← Older revision Revision as of 22:35, 11 January 2019
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URL = http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art32 [https://scripps.ucsd.edu/sites/scripps.ucsd.edu/files/communications-content/field_crop/Ram-PB-large_0.jpg graphic]
 
URL = http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art32 [https://scripps.ucsd.edu/sites/scripps.ucsd.edu/files/communications-content/field_crop/Ram-PB-large_0.jpg graphic]
   
 
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==Definition==
=Definition=
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Scripps:
 
Scripps:
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(https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/earth-has-crossed-several-planetary-boundaries-thresholds-human-induced-environmental-changes)
 
(https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/earth-has-crossed-several-planetary-boundaries-thresholds-human-induced-environmental-changes)
   
=Description=
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==Description==
   
'''1. Will Steffen, Robert Constanza et al.:'''
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===1. Will Steffen, Robert Constanza et al.:===
   
 
"How do we begin to identify what aspects of our planet need boundaries and what those boundaries are? The concept of planetary boundaries,  while building on earlier efforts, takes a rather different approach. It does not focus so directly on the human enterprise, as do most of these earlier approaches, but rather emphasizes the Earth as a complex system. Here we identify nine areas that are most in need of set planetary boundaries: climate change; biodiversity loss; excess nitrogen and phosphorus production, which pollutes our soils and waters; stratospheric ozone depletion; ocean acidification; global consumption of freshwater; change in land use for agriculture; air pollution; and chemical pollution.
 
"How do we begin to identify what aspects of our planet need boundaries and what those boundaries are? The concept of planetary boundaries,  while building on earlier efforts, takes a rather different approach. It does not focus so directly on the human enterprise, as do most of these earlier approaches, but rather emphasizes the Earth as a complex system. Here we identify nine areas that are most in need of set planetary boundaries: climate change; biodiversity loss; excess nitrogen and phosphorus production, which pollutes our soils and waters; stratospheric ozone depletion; ocean acidification; global consumption of freshwater; change in land use for agriculture; air pollution; and chemical pollution.
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Source: "This article is based on the papers “A safe operating space for humanity,”  published in Nature, and “Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity,” [http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art32] published in Ecology and Society. See these papers for a complete description of the planetary boundaries."
 
Source: "This article is based on the papers “A safe operating space for humanity,”  published in Nature, and “Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity,” [http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art32] published in Ecology and Society. See these papers for a complete description of the planetary boundaries."
   
 
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===2. From the Wikipedia:===
'''2. From the Wikipedia:'''
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"Planetary boundaries is the central concept in an Earth system framework proposed by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University. In 2009, the group proposed a framework of “planetary boundaries” designed to define a “safe operating space for humanity” for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations, civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable development. This framework is based on scientific research that indicates that since the Industrial Revolution, human actions have gradually become the main driver of global environmental change. The scientists assert that once human activity has passed certain thresholds or tipping points, defined as “planetary boundaries”, there is a risk of “irreversible and abrupt environmental change”.[3] The scientists identified nine Earth system processes which have boundaries that, to the extent that they are not crossed, mark the safe zone for the planet. However, because of human activities some of these dangerous boundaries have already been crossed, while others are in imminent danger of being crossed.
 
"Planetary boundaries is the central concept in an Earth system framework proposed by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University. In 2009, the group proposed a framework of “planetary boundaries” designed to define a “safe operating space for humanity” for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations, civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable development. This framework is based on scientific research that indicates that since the Industrial Revolution, human actions have gradually become the main driver of global environmental change. The scientists assert that once human activity has passed certain thresholds or tipping points, defined as “planetary boundaries”, there is a risk of “irreversible and abrupt environmental change”.[3] The scientists identified nine Earth system processes which have boundaries that, to the extent that they are not crossed, mark the safe zone for the planet. However, because of human activities some of these dangerous boundaries have already been crossed, while others are in imminent danger of being crossed.
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(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_boundaries)
 
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_boundaries)
   
 
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==Examples==
 
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=Examples=
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Climate change, biodiversity loss, and phosphorus and nitrogen production are just three areas in which boundaries can be determined and measured, and we will use these as examples.
 
Climate change, biodiversity loss, and phosphorus and nitrogen production are just three areas in which boundaries can be determined and measured, and we will use these as examples.
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(http://www.stwr.org/climate-change-environment/how-defining-planetary-boundaries-can-transform-our-approach-to-growth.html)
 
(http://www.stwr.org/climate-change-environment/how-defining-planetary-boundaries-can-transform-our-approach-to-growth.html)
   
 
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==Status==
=Status=
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Scripps media:
 
Scripps media:
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(https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/earth-has-crossed-several-planetary-boundaries-thresholds-human-induced-environmental-changes)
 
(https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/earth-has-crossed-several-planetary-boundaries-thresholds-human-induced-environmental-changes)
   
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==Discussion==
   
=Discussion=
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===Critical Features of the Planetary Boundaries Concept===
 
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==Critical Features of the Planetary Boundaries Concept==
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Will Steffen, Johan Rockström and Robert Costanza:
 
Will Steffen, Johan Rockström and Robert Costanza:
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(http://www.stwr.org/climate-change-environment/how-defining-planetary-boundaries-can-transform-our-approach-to-growth.html)
 
(http://www.stwr.org/climate-change-environment/how-defining-planetary-boundaries-can-transform-our-approach-to-growth.html)
   
=More Information=
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==More Information==
 
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* [[Safe Planetary Boundaries]]
 
* summary of common objections: http://makewealthhistory.org/2013/08/14/planetary-boundaries-some-common-objections/?
 
* summary of common objections: http://makewealthhistory.org/2013/08/14/planetary-boundaries-some-common-objections/?
   

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